May 8, 2010

Hans Küng: Liberalism's Pathetic Icon

...Or, When Good Scholars Go Bad

I do find it disconcerting that Hans Küng, a dissident Catholic theologian, still holds appeal for so many liberal Catholics. Yet, I must ask, What is still Catholic about Hans Küng? He prefers a Catholic Church reformed (or rather de-formed) according to liberal Protestantism. Not to mention that liberal Protestantism, that aberrant form of Christianity, may be in its death throes. Anyway, Küng's pseudo-Catholicism reveals much about the so-called "Catholicism" of his liberal Catholic admirers.

More accurately, in matters of Catholic faith and morals, there are no "liberal" or "conservative" positions. There are only orthodox and heterodox views.

Küng’s heterodox opinions include frequent and trendy challenges to the official Church position on papal infallibility, birth control, priestly celibacy and the all-male priesthood. Küng's pontificating on the clerical sex abuse problems, which he attributes to the Church’s "uptight" attitude about sex, is as absurd as it is naïve. Küng shows little to no awareness of causes most relevant to the crisis such as poor spiritual formation and homosexuality.

I wonder how Küng would explain the fact sex abuse among teachers in the public school system where it is a much greater problem. Sex abuse in the public school system is a significantly greater problem, which includes cover-ups such as the standard “passing the trash”, by transferring the offending employee to another school or district. This problem is not nearly so publicized and denounced by the media as it is with Catholic clergy. Also, among clerics, Protestant denominations have comparable sex abuse problems to the Catholic Church. Yet, this is not the impression one gets from the picture painted by the media. Sex abuse is a social crisis, perhaps at an epidemic level, though hardly confined to celibate priests in a Church allegedly “uptight” about sex.

In the United States, one of the classic works on sex abuse, entitled Pedophiles and Priests, by Philip Jenkins provides a more accurate insight into the problem.
Jenkins has carried out research in the area of clergy abuse over a period of twenty years and he concludes that there is no evidence that celibate clergy are any more likely to abuse minors than non celibate clergy: the incidence of clergy abuse in the Catholic Church is comparable to that found in other denominations. To put matters in context, minors are a hundred times more likely to claim that they have been abused in state schools in the United States than by Catholic Clergy. (See Making Sense of the Sex Abuse Crisis by Dr. Pravin Thevathasan)
Küng’s “solution” for the Church is “abolition of the celibacy rule, the root of all these evils, and the admission of women to ordination.” Guffaw! It is naïve at best to believe the celibacy rule is responsible for clerical sex abuse. And as for women priests, that will forever remain a dissident theologian’s elusive fantasy.

We can see more clearly how twisted Küng’s arguments are by taking a close look at his stance on abortion. A brief look at his view on abortion will suffice here as an example of the characteristic weakness and rank logic of his positions. In 2007, Küng weighed in on the abortion debate in Mexico. The Global Ethic Foundation held the conference on March 28 in Mexico City.

Küng said, “The Church’s absolute prohibition of abortion is a merciless extremism that could be anything but Christian.” Now, as a matter of history, the Church has maintained the same position on abortion since apostolic times. So one can only wonder what Küng means by the Church’s position being anything but Christian. Here are just a few examples of the early Church’s teaching on abortion that Küng would consider to be “merciless extemism.”

The Letter of Barnabas (A.D. 74; Chap 19 v. 5) says, "The way of light, then, is as follows. If anyone desires to travel to the appointed place, he must be zealous in his works. The knowledge, therefore, which is given to us for the purpose of walking in this way, is the following. . . . Thou shalt not slay the child by procuring abortion; nor, again, shalt thou destroy it after it is born."

The Didache or Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, (2nd century; Chap. 2) says, "You shall not kill an unborn child or murder a newborn infant."

In A Plea for the Christians, Athenagoras says (A.D. 177; Chap. 35), "What reason would we have to commit murder when we say that women who induce abortions are murderers, and will have to give account of it to God? For the same person would not regard the fetus in the womb as a living thing and therefore an object of God's care, and at the same time slay it, once it had come to life."

Tertullian says in his Treatise on the Soul (A.D. 210; Chap. 27), "Now we allow that life begins with conception because we contend that the soul also begins from conception; life taking its commencement at the same moment and place that the soul does.” And "The law of Moses, indeed, punishes with due penalties the man who shall cause abortion. (Chap. 37; [Ex. 21:22–24]”

St. Basil the Great says (First Canonical Letter, Canon 2; A.D. 374) "Let her that procures abortion undergo ten years’ penance, whether the embryo were perfectly formed, or not." Also (Letters, 188), "A woman who deliberately destroys a fetus is answerable for murder. And any fine distinction as to its being completely formed or unformed is not admissible amongst us."

Clearly, Küng’s view, one that is impossible to be true, is that the Church in  ancient times as well as modern is in error on abortion.

Küng contends that “Thinking of abortion as a birth control method evidently doesn’t respect life.” This, he said, is one extreme. But the other extreme is the Church’s --- “the one that doesn’t permit anything and doesn’t see abortion as a serious problem for many women, especially poor women, because the rich ones have other methods to resort to.”

What does Küng allege to be the true Christian view on abortion? It is a view that says the fertilized ovum is not a human person. Here we see the beginning of Küng’s strategy to break down the absolute prohibition on abortion with his pseudo-science and misrepresentation of Church history. Küng must find some authority for his personal view on abortion. He tries to find justification in the writings of St. Thomas Aquinas, a typical pro-abortion Catholic maneuver. We will see next that this is a failed strategy. one that relies on misrepresenting Aquinas.

Küng says, “There is a great difference between the classic Catholic doctrine and St. Thomas Aquinas’ position, because he thinks that human animation is a process and there is not a human person from the beginning because the human person, says St. Thomas Aquinas, presuppose an anima intellectualis, an intellect, what distinguishes humans from animals, it is clear that at the beginning there is not a human person.”

For this reason, Küng maintains that “a fertilized ovum, evidently is human life but is not a person. So the problem of abortion is considerably reduced.”

Is there any legitimacy to Küng’s argument? To answer that question we must first look at what Aquinas actually taught. Kung is playing on an historical scientific issue that he conveniently leaves unexplained. Specifically, during the medieval period the state of biological science, following Aristotle, was such that it mistakenly believed the male pre-natal child was not developed enough to be 'ensouled', and therefore human, until 40 days, while the female took about 80 days.

In Aquinas’ philosophical view, the nutritive and sensitive souls precede the presence of the spiritual or intellectual soul. The intellectual soul, which contains within it the powers of the lower nutritive or vegetative and sensitive souls, is created directly by “God at the end of human generation, and this soul is at the same time sensitive and nutritive, the pre-existing forms being corrupted” (S.T. Ia, q. 118, art. 2, reply 2).

Even though Aquinas followed the latter day Aristotelian theory, which held that the fetus was not developed sufficiently until about 40 or 80 days for the intellectual soul, he considered abortion of the fetus in the earlier stages of either the nutritive or sensitive states to be counted among those “the evil deeds” that “are contrary to nature”, (IV Commentary on the Four Books of Sentences of Peter Lombard, dist. 31, q. 2, art. 3 Exposition). Thus, for Aquinas, abortion is grave moral evil in the very early stages of development, and clearly murder during the latter stages.

The key to understanding Aquinas’ position is to realize that he made reflections based on the science of his day, yet his conclusion that abortion is always a grave moral evil, is a position that remains above and independent of the particular historical state of science. In this respect, Aquinas' teaching is consistent with the teachings of the Fathers and Doctors of the Church before him.

If Aquinas had accurate biological knowledge available to him, he would have undoubtedly considered abortion murder at any stage of pre-natal development.

So, the question we must now ask is why does Küng base his argument on the state of biological science in the middle ages? Why does he resort to a position based on inaccurate scientific knowledge rather than acknowledge contemporary scientific knowledge of pre-natal development? The only answer can be that Küng’s argument, which summarily rejects modern scientific facts about conception and pre-natal development in favor of the erroneous biological information of the medieval period, is intellectually dishonest. One needs to look no further for an explanation.

What conclusion does Küng want his audience to draw from his argument? Is it that the “true” Christian position would allow for abortion before 40 or 80 days? Even this would be a grave moral evil according to Aquinas. Does it follow from this that Küng is advocating what he knows to be mortal sin? Or, does he not believe in sin any longer?

Küng’s convoluted reasoning makes it difficult to precisely grasp his intended meaning in every statement. Yet what is assuredly true is that Küng’s heterodox views are wrong, pathetically wrong!

May 7, 2010

Pope Benedict and the Media

I HAVE been intending for some time so say something about the media's irrational attacks on the Pope. Clearly the media and its anti-Catholic allies are desperate to find some evidence implicating the Pope in a cover-up of clerical sex abuse. Hypocritical pontificating by the popular media is generally what it does best. Who would think the media's anti-Catholic bigotry could become more transparent than it already has been for some time?

There is no evidence implicating the Pope in a cover-up. Supposing, for the sake of argument, there existed some real indication of complicity, of which there is none, it is most unethical for any attorney or journalist to try a case in the media.

However, as there is no evidence to speak of, merely ungrounded accusations, and so on, the foregoing fact amply illustrates that the idea of journalistic ethics may not even be so much as an idea in the minds of many journalists. It seems that journalistic ethics is practically non-existent.

Catholics should not be complicit in media attacks on the Church. We should be writing letters of protest to the editors, or canceling any subscriptions to these organs of anti-Catholic attitudes and provide the editor with an explanation for the cancellation. Why support any organization whose goal is to undermine Catholic morality and beliefs?

May 6, 2010

Karl Rahner & Bernard Lonergan

IN recent discussions with Catholics, I have encountered what I would call an uncritical acceptance of the writings of Catholic theologians Karl Rahner and Bernard Lonergan. Doubtless, we can learn much that is of value from their works. However, I do not trust either writer uncritically in all things pertaining to Catholic philosophy or theology.

Philosophically, I am not sympathetic to Transcendental Thomism or “critical” realism. I am in full agreement with the eminent historian of medieval philosophy, Etienne Gilson, who amply shows that once realism becomes “critical” it is no longer Thomistic realism. But the problem of a critical realism will be a topic for another post.

For now, I will note that I am disappointed in both Rahner and Lonergan for their failure to understand and accept the Catholic Church’s teaching on artificial birth control. The Church grounds its position on artificial means of birth control in the natural law. Adherence to that most sensible teaching is morally obligatory.

How trustworthy are the philosophical judgments of Rahner and Lonergan when they dispute that interpretation of natural law? How sound are their theological judgments when they continued to dissent from the teaching authority of the Church? Humanae Vitae settled and closed the fundamental issues.

Again, this does not speak well of their philosophical understanding of natural law and Catholic moral theology, not to mention their trendy 60's style of dissing the teaching authority of the Catholic Church. Their conduct was indisputably scandalous.

Regarding their pro-artificial contraception stance, Msgr. Vincent Foy describes the "The Toronto Conference on the Theology of Renewal”:
A congress on the Theology of the Renewal of the Church was held in Toronto in 1967. It was heavily loaded with speakers who were agitating for change in the Church’s teaching against contraception. Among these were Cardinal Leger, Cardinal Suenens, Edward Schillebeeckx, OP, Karl Rahner, SJ, Bernard Häring, CSsR, Bernard Lonergan, SJ, Enda McDonagh (called by some the Maynooth Pope of Modernism),... Fr. Häring saw the teaching against contraception as coming from a pre-scientific mind appropriate to a former society. No speaker defended the Church’s teaching against contraception or sterilization. Thus again, Canada was being led down the slippery slope towards the contraceptive mentality.
That was 1967. Pope Paul VI promulgated Humanae Vitae on July 29, 1968.
After Humanae Vitae, pressure groups sprung up like mushrooms. Among these were the Western Conference of priests, armed with a letter of support for dissent by Fr. Bernard Lonergan, SJ, the Catholic Physicians Guild of Manitoba, Catholics in Dialogue, the Canadian Institute of Theology and 58 “intellectuals” of St. Francis Xavier University (“the cream of Antigonish” their Bishop said.) The chant of all was “Give us Freedom of Conscience."
Most significant and most disgraceful was that fifteen Directors of the departments of the Canadian Catholic Conference of Bishops betrayed their offices and signed what one could call a “Pre-Winnipeg” Statement. They asked for a “Vatican II approach.” They said that a large number of Canadian priests were agonizing “in acute crises of conscience” because of the “apparent directives of Humanae Vitae.” In all my experience I never met a priest suffering from such an acute crisis of conscience.
So the stage was set for the great Winnipeg betrayal of the Catholics of Canada.
(Excerpts from Humanae Vitae and Canada: Forty Years After, by Msgr. Vincent Foy. I edited out Msgr. Foy's statement regarding Elizabeth Anscombe, as he clearly misrepresented her position, an error apparently due to his failure to check his source. I welcome any information that indicates any additional errors Msgr. Vincent Foy may have made.)

Recommended reading: Contraception and Chastity by Elizabeth Anscombe.

Addendum:
In regard to Karl Rahner and Humanae Vitae, Rahner maintained that it is permissible to dissent from "the ordinary decisions of the pope on matters of faith and morals." Fr. Regis Scanlon says,
Karl Rahner, however, stated that this teaching in No. 25 of Lumen Gentium " . . . is not to be propounded in such a way that in practice an absolute assent is still demanded or that there were no instance in which one might withhold assent."  When applying this teaching to a case in which a person had conscientiously decided to use contraception, against the decision of Paul VI in Humanae Vitae, Rahner commented: "Such a Catholic need not fear that he has incurred any subjective guilt or regard himself as in a state of formal disobedience to the Church's authority." Moral theologians, Ronald Modras and William May, have pointed out that Karl Rahner meant that one could "dissent" from the ordinary decisions of the pope on matters of faith and morals.
Read the complete article at CatholicCulture.org: Non-Infallibility: The Papacy And Rahner 


Animal Rights and Animal Abuse

Do animals have rights? Rights are based on persons, and animals, no matter how cute and friendly, are not persons. I will address this topic at length in another post. My concern here, however, is to briefly address man's relation to animals. As Christians, we know from the Book of Genesis that God has given man dominion over the earth. Man has been designated a steward of God's creation. This means, in the first place, that creation ultimately belongs to God, and not man. Secondly, creation is given to man for his use and enjoyment. This is where our responsible stewardship is required.

With the rights of stewardship comes responsibility for the environment. Dominion over creation requires our ethical treatment of animals. Animals exist for themselves and for man's responsible use, such as a means for clothing, transportation, food, pets, and so on. However, corporate farming, especially in America, has been incredibly abusive in its treatment of animals.

The following link is to a video that gives a shocking glimpse inside slaughterhouses, factory farms, live-animal transport and the fishing industry. The film "Glass Houses" is narrated by Paul McCartney and sponsored by PETA. Note that I do not support or have sympathy for PETA with its mixed up ideals. However, every conscientious person must agree that we should not tolerate the kind of rampant abuse of animals depicted in this film.

If you are concerned about ethical treatment of God's creatures, perhaps you can find ways to encourage respect and reverence for animals, and for all of creation, even if it just involves eating less meat, or becoming a vegetarian. I am not a vegetarian, at least not yet, but a good vegetarian diet avoids many of the impurities and other unhealthy factors associated with corporate farming of animals.

Problems with bottled water

I recently bought a reusable, hard plastic bottle for drinking water. The idea of buying disposable bottles of purified water did not appeal to me because the empties need to be re-cycled and production of the soft plastic bottles use up non-renewable petroleum products.

When I got home I noticed a warning label on the bottle I purchased. It said the product contains chemicals known to the State of California to cause cancer. Hmm!

Sure enough, plastic is not an inert substance and it contains chemicals like BPA and phthalates, which mimic hormones in your body. This is one of the many facts I learned by subsequently scouring the WWW. The best re-usable bottle appears to be one made of stainless steel.

Furthermore, the production and disposal soft plastic bottles of water creates significant environmental problems, and the purified water may not be as pure as the manufacturer would like you to believe.

For additional information on this subject, I recommend the following page for quick reading and an informative video:  This Common Beverage Can Spike Brain Damage, Obesity, and Cancer Risk

See also FDA continues dragging its feet on Bisphenol-A decision 

May 4, 2010

Does HIV Cause AIDS?

Is it scientifically proven that HIV causes AIDS? Perhaps not. I have always retained certain doubts regarding just what AIDS is as well as its popularly reputed cause. Also, consider whether the treatment AZT might be the culprit in many so-called AIDS related deaths.

Now, a controversial new documentary charges the AIDS industry with fraudulent marketing of a global AIDS epidemic.
In House of Numbers: Anatomy of an Epidemic, an AIDS film like no other, the HIV/AIDS story is being rewritten. This is the first film to present the uncensored POVs of virtually all the major players; in their own settings, in their own words. It rocks the foundation upon which all conventional wisdom regarding HIV/AIDS is based. House of Numbers could well be the opening volley in a battle to bring sanity and clarity to an epidemic gone awry.
Watch an assortment of clips from House of Numbers: The Anatomy of an Epidemic ...and think about it!

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